# APIO 2016 - Gap

Author: Andi Qu

### Appears In

We can find the minimum and maximum elements of $a$ in some range $[l, r]$ by simply querying MinMax(l, r, &mn, &mx). This lets us "whittle down" the range and reconstruct $a$ with $M \leq \frac{N + 1}{2}$.

We can then sweep throught $a$ and find the largest gap.

We don't necessarily need to reconstruct $a$ entirely to find the largest gap. Notice how if we know a lowerbound $x$ on the answer and the range of all $a_i$, then we can simply query the range in blocks of size $x - 1$ to find the answer. This works because the largest gap will always span at least two blocks.

So what is the lowerbound on the answer? If there are $N$ elements that span a range of size $L$, then the lowerbound is $\frac{L + N - 1}{N - 1}$ by the pigeonhole principle. (This is a similar idea to the $\alpha = 1/2$ solution for IMO 2020 P6).

Our algorithm thus looks like:

• Find the range that $a$ spans in 1 query. This contributes $N + 1$ to $M$.
• Find $x$ (the lowerbound on the answer) from the formula above.
• Query the range in blocks of size $x - 1$. Since there are $N - 1$ of these blocks and each $a_i$ is included in exactly 1 of these blocks, this contributes $2N - 1$ to $M$.

This allows us to find the largest gap with $M \leq 3N$.

## Implementation

#include "gap.h"
#include <bits/stdc++.h>using namespace std;typedef long long ll;
const ll MAXN = 1e18;
ll a, j = 0;


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