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# DP on Trees - Solving For All Roots

Authors: Benjamin Qi, Andi Qu, Andrew Wang

Contributor: Dong Liu

Tree DP that uses the subtree from excluding each node's subtree.

### Prerequisites

Solution - Tree Distances IProblems

Focus Problem – read through this problem before continuing!

View Internal Solution

## Solution - Tree Distances I

### Note

This problem previously appeared in Intro to Trees. This is simply an alternate solution to the problem.

It is a common technique to calculate two DP arrays for some DP on trees problems. Usually one DP array is responsible for calculating results within the subtree rooted at $i$. The other DP array calculates results outside of the subtree rooted at $i$.

The focus problem asks us to find for each node the maximum distance to another node. We can divide the problem into two parts.

Define $f[x]$ as the maximum distance from node $x$ to any node in the subtree rooted at $x$.

Define $g[x]$ as the maximum distance from node $x$ to any node outside of the subtree rooted at $x$.

Then the answer for node $x$ = $\max(f[x],g[x])$

$f[x]$ can be calculated using a DFS since $f[x]$ = $\max(f[c])+1$, where $c$ is a child of $x$.

$g[x]$ can also be calculated using a DFS as $g[c]$ = $\max(g[x]+1,f[d]+1)$, where $c$ and $d$ are both children of $x$ with $c \neq d$.

To calculate $g$ in linear time, we can define another array $h$ such that $h[x]$ is the second largest distance from node $x$ to any node in the subtree rooted at $x$. So if $f[x]$ is transitioned from the branch with $c$, $g[c]$ = $\max(g[x]+1,h[x]+1)$. Otherwise $g[c]$ = $\max(g[x]+1,f[x]+1)$.

C++

#include <bits/stdc++.h>using namespace std;
vector<int> graph;int fir, sec, ans;
void dfs1(int node = 1, int parent = 0) {	for (int i : graph[node]) if (i != parent) {		dfs1(i, node);		if (fir[i] + 1 > fir[node]) {

Java

import java.util.*;import java.io.*;
public class Main {	public static ArrayList <Integer> g[];	public static Pair maxl1[];	public static Pair maxl2[];	public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {		BufferedReader br = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(System.in));		int N = Integer.parseInt(br.readLine());

## Problems

### Warning!

Although the intended solution for "Cow At Large" is extremely difficult, it is not too hard to fakesolve! See the internal solution for details.

StatusSourceProblem NameDifficultyTags
CFEasy
Show TagsDP
ACNormal
Show TagsDP
Balkan OINormal
Show TagsDP, Functional Graph
GoldNormal
Show TagsDP, Tree
PlatHard
Show TagsDP, Tree
APIOHard
Show TagsCasework, DP
IZhOHard
Show TagsDP
APIOVery Hard
Show TagsCasework, DP
CEOIVery Hard
Show TagsDP, Math

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